Compiled by Ridwan Sedgwick

This bibliography first appeared at the website of the Centre for Language Teaching and Research site, University of Queensland, Australia, but it has now disappeared. We have taken the liberty to copy Ridwan Sedgwick's bibliography to the ICT4LT site and update some of the links as it is an extremely useful source of information

Message from the author, Ridwan Sedgwick: I hope that this short bibliography is useful to you. I have tried to cover a range of attitudes and approaches to CALL. If you would like to add a reference to the bibliography, please feel free to email it to me and I'll add it together with an acknowledgement of your contribution. Don't forget to annotate your reference. I also welcome any discussion or comment that you may wish to offer:

ICT4LT Editor's Note: If anyone can tell us how to contact the author we would be extremely grateful. The author's email address (above) appears to be dead.

ICT4LT Editor's Note: Concrete evidence on the effectiveness of CALL is not easy to find. We touch on this subject in
Section 3, Module 1.1, headed How effective are new technologies in promoting language learning?

Links checked 20 September 2011



Lasarenko, Jane (1995). Collaborative Learning in a Networked Classroom: - this link appears to have died, but try the Internet Archive at

Lasarenko describes the development and implementation of a Computer Mediated Composition class. Her own preconceptions of how the class would run were shattered as she and the class discovered the potential of this learning medium. What she reports is the positive response of students to the program, particularly the way that they responded to the opportunity to engage in collaboration.

Levine, Alan & Laurita Moore-Diaz (1996). Computers in the Bilingual Classroom: A Conversation, The Labyrinth, Spring 1996:

As the title reads, this is a conversation between two practitioners. Moore-Diaz is describing her practice as a bilingual computer teacher. She makes some interesting comments about how the English language nuances necessary for computer use encourage students to learn to read better. She also encourages students to express their creativity through using HTML to write web pages. She has experimented with a paperless classroom and has some observations about constraints and benefits of the concept.

Shilhary, Brian (1994). A Multimedia Lesson for the Petroleum Industry. CAELL Journal, 5(3), 6-11.

The author describes an English program developed at King Fahd University for Petroleum and Minerals in Saudi Arabia for use in that institution. He writes to share his success and experience with the language teaching community. This is an experiential evaluation and there is no comparison with other programs.

Top of page


Berge, Zane L & Mauri P. Collins (1995). Eds. Computer Mediated Communication and the Online Classroom, Vol 1.
Cresskill NJ: Hampton Press, Inc.

In this volume the authors describe what computer mediated communication is and how it can be used effectively as a teaching/learning tool. The emphasis is the paradigm shift from the teacher as dispenser of wisdom and knowledge to a that of a facilitator. By using computer mediated communication the instructor encourages a greater range of interactive class involvement and student responsibility for his or her own learning. Opportunities abound for intellectual, interpersonal, socioemotional enrichment and creative problem solving through independent and cooperative sharings. Writing skills potentially improve through increased practice and motivation.

Cononelos, Terri & Maurizio Oliva (1994). Teaching Languages With Netnews. Interpersonal Computing and Technology Journal, 2(1).

These writers argue that the Internet offers many resources which are useful in the teaching and learning of languages. There is discussion of some of the benefits and challenges associated with using NEWS. This is case study based on a fourth-year Italian class taught at the University of Utah by one of the authors (Maurizio Oliva).

Eck, Andreas; Lienhard Legenhausen & Dieter Wolff (1994). Assessing Telecommunications Projects: Project Types and Their Educational Potential, in Jung, Heidrun & Robert Vanderplank (Eds) Barriers and Bridges: Media Technology in Language Learning, 45-62.

A learning circle project involving German and USA/Canadian students employed email communication. In a follow-up activity, the texts produced during the activity were analysed by the German students using Longman Mini Concordancer. Email texts can serve as valuable learning materials and research data for the students themselves. This project shows several benefits of email communication to language learning.

Ellsworth, Jill H (1995). Using Computer-Mediated Communication in Teaching University Courses, in Berge, Zane L & Mauri P Collins (Eds.) Computer Mediated Communication and the Online Classroom.Vol 1: Overview and Perspectives, 29-36.
Cresskill New Jersey: Hampton.

Ellsworth discusses how she implemented CMC in undergraduate and graduate courses. She discusses the uses that were made of various levels of CMC and explains how she taught students to use CMC. Her overall impression of CMC is very positive and she clearly tells why. Her article seems to have been written to tell others of the successes that she and her students have enjoyed through using CMC.

Hiraga, Masako K & Yoko Fufii (1994). Teaching English From Australia to Japan via Interactive Videoconference Systems, in Jung, Heidrun & Robert Vanderplank (Eds) Barriers and Bridges: Media Technology in Language Learning, 69-80.

This is a report of a project on the use of an interactive videoconference system for teaching EFL, between the University of the Air (UA), Japan and the University of New England (UNE), Armidale, Australia. The findings indicate that videoconferencing is a viable alternative to direct classroom teaching.

Leppänen, Sirpa & Paula Klaja (1995). Experimenting With Computer Conferencing in English for Academic Purposes.
ELT Journal, 49 (1), 26-36.

In this experiment, computer conferencing was used by students and the tutor as a form for classroom discussions, and as a means of introducing process writing to students. There were two purposes of the study: 1) To find out more abut the suitability of computer conferencing in the L2 context, and; 2) For introducing the students to the idea of writing as process. A group of five (out of some 60) participated in the experiment. One of the most interesting findings was that the group dynamics changed considerably compared with traditional classroom discussions.

McComb, Mary (1993). Augmenting a Group Discussion Course with Computer-Mediated Communication in a Small College Setting. Interpersonal Computing and Technology: An Electronic Journal for the 21st Century, 1(3).

In this case study, McComb reports on how she and students used computer-mediated communication (CMC) in a group discussion course at a small college. She highlights three characteristics of the advantages of CMC-augmented instruction: a. asyncronicity; b. efficient information access and; c. increased social distance. She concludes that CMC definitely has advantages for the instructor and lists those advantages.

Meeks, Brock N (1987). Computers for Communication. In Julie C Rutkowska & Charles Crook (eds.) Computers, Cognition and Development: Issues for Psychology and Education, 55-68. Chichester: John Wiley.

This chapter explores the possibilities for communication provided by computers. The author describes the potential of this teaching methodology even though discs were sent between sites by snail mail. Now that we have the World Wide Web, the possibilities are of course much greater.

Teichmann, Virginia (1994). An Interdisciplinary Project Orientation Using Telecommunications Media in Foreign Language Teaching, in Jung Heidrun & Robert Vanderplank (Eds) Barriers and Bridges: Media Technology in Language Learning, 63-68.

Through the use of email and videoconferencing to encourage students from the USA to communicate with German students, the author recorded the emergence of a significant intercultural awareness. Other media were used in this project, many of which could now be substituted with the most recent electronic media.

Top of page


Evans, Joan (1996). Testing the Effectiveness of the Computer In Promoting Communication, ON-CALL 7, 1.

This study aimed to provide empirical evidence of the role of the computer in engendering conversation. The aims of the study were two-fold: to record and describe the discourse used by students working on one CALL and one non-CALL text; and to analyse and evaluate the nature of students' discourse thus generated. The author concludes that as a means of promoting communicative competence, setting students to work at a computer together does not appear to be an effective strategy. However, students' enthusiasm combined with the potential of CALL programs for individualizing programs, warrants the continued use of CALL programs.

ICT4LT Editor's Note: See Section 3.4, Module 1.4 and Section 3.4.2, Module 2.1 for further information on this topic.

Top of page



Chapelle, Carol & Joan Jamieson (1991). Internal and External Validity Issues in Research on CALL Effectiveness, in Patricia Dunkel (Ed) Computer Assisted Language Learning and Testing: Research Issues and Practice, 37-60. New York: Newbury House.

These authors present a review of effectiveness studies that contrasts CALL with conventional instruction and analyses the effects of various CALL lesson strategies. They summarise comments made by researchers on attitudes toward CALL as well as summarising answers provided by research to questions on CALL.

Top of page


Backer, Jimmy (1995). Teaching Grammar With Call: Survey of Theoretical Literature.

Backer examines the possibilities of teaching grammar using computers, and categorises the ways the computer can be used in ESL/EFL teaching in general. With these categories we can evaluate the potential of using CALL as a teaching environment. He details how early instructional CALL corresponded to behaviouristic methodologies, and how contemporary instructional CALL often is meaning-based, contextualized, and holistic. In this exhaustive review of the literature, Baker concludes that grammar can be taught in all three modes of CALL: instructional, revelatory, and conjectural.

Top of page


Eastment, David (1996). Survey Review: CD-ROM materials in English language teaching today. ELT Journal, 50(1), 69-79.

This is a review of 17 CD ROMs and a brief treatise on the evaluation of CD-ROMs. This is not an evaluation of the effectiveness of CALL, rather an insight of how to evaluate CD-ROMs to ensure that this powerful learning medium is used to good effect.

Hanson Smith, Elizabeth (1994). Multimedia: Is it Worth the Disk it's Pressed On? CAELL Journal, 5(3).

This is an investigation of the relevance of multimedia to language learning. The author asks the question, "if learning is ever so easy - why bother doing it at all?" She compares multimedia language programs with MTV and Intellamation (dissect a frog, pig or human body without touching a knife). She complains that the realm of socio-cultural transactions remains untapped.

Turner, S V & V M Dipinto (1992). Students as Hypermedia Authors: Themes Emerging From a Qualitative Study. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 25(2), 187-199.

In this study, 37 seventh-grade students created multimedia research reports about mammals as part of their science curriculum. With 9-10 hours of hands-on time they developed confidence in HyperCard authoring and created individual hypermedia science reports. The study indicates that in learning to use hypermedia software and hardware, the students acquired a powerful new means of communication as well as processing skills related to organizing information and to writing. There are several comments relating to the effect the hypermedia environment had on the writing process.

Top of page


Chen, Judy F (1996). CALL is not a Hammer and Not Every Teaching Problem is a Nail!: Changing Expectations of Computers in the Classroom. Internet TESL Journal, July, 1996.

Chen describes the standing of CAI and CALL application in Taiwan. She then looks at CALL generally and asserts that negative experiences with language labs have led teachers to be sceptical of new technologies in the classroom. There is an interesting list of studies that have shown that students have positive attitudes about computer technology being used in the classroom and that such technology does have a positive impact.

Christopher Columbus Story. (1996). Christopher Columbus Junior High School, Union City, New Jersey.

In an effort to turn around low academic performance of students in a poor, urban school district, Bell Atlantic and the school developed a CAL program. Testing in reading, math and writing shows that the students are performing at 10 points above state average, and students with the most exposure to technology had the highest overall scores for the district. Another result is that non-English speaking background parents also improved their language skills through having computers in their homes.

Easdown, Graeme (1995). Encouraging Teachers to Explore Educational Computing and to Integrate the Use of Computers and Allied Technology into their Teaching Practice: A British Perspective.

Easdown is not looking at CALL specifically rather, as the title suggests, computer aided instruction. He says that the issue that is central to capitalising on the potential of this technology for teaching and learning is how can teachers be encouraged to investigate the potential of this technology and to integrate it into their practice. He identifies three major areas in which change has to take place; teaching materials, teaching strategies and teaching beliefs, for the implementation of the innovation to achieve the desired effects. Within the exploration of educational innovation, there lies some understanding of why some teachers are resistant to CALL.

Higgins, John (1995). Computers and Language Learning. Oxford: Intellect.

This work presents an overview and impressions of the field from 1966 to 1993. Higgins is a long-time practitioner reflecting on his own and others' work. He doesn't make any comparisons but reveals some interesting criticisms and evaluation of CALL.

Hunter, Lawrence (1996). CALL: Its Scope and Limits: A speech by Frank Berberich at the Toyohashi JALT chapter meeting. Internet ESL Journal June, 1996.

This is a report of a speech in which the speaker presents three imagined scenarios for CALL, the Star Trek scenario, where the target language is instantly integrated into one's mind; the 2001 scenario, where the machine is a fully human conversationalist and tutor; and the Now scenario, the current state of the art (in the non-ideal sense of the term) scenario, where interaction is via keyboard/screen and audio/visual multimedia are basic. Some basic views underlying the talk: current CALL software is limited, perhaps disappointing, since most items are either slick programmer productions which miss much of the wisdom that educators have to offer, or are educator produced and lack the stimulating interface that a programmer could provide.

Kluge, David et al Eds. (1993). The Proceedings of the National Conference on Computers and Composition. The Japan Association of Language Teaching CALL National Special Interest Group and Nagoya Chapter.

This web site offers a review of the conference not, unfortunately, the full conference papers. The information on how to purchase the collection is on the web site. According to the editor's notes, the conference was based on the premise that not all of the language teachers are experts on educational technology, especially computers. Except for some of the computer wizards most of them can not use computers for their teaching situations so easily. They often use word processors for their own purposes such as writing papers and end up with using word processors in their composition classes because they are familiar with word processing.

Sela, Orly (1995). Using Computers in the EFL Mixed Ability Class: - this link appears to have died, but try the Internet Archive:

In this article the author explains why the computer is particularly suitable for use in mixed-ability EFL classes. There is a list of several characteristics that make the use of computers suitable. These include: individualization, pace, peer-teaching, success-oriented, motivation, variety, interesting content, visually interesting, pupils' choice, personal feedback, and minimal teacher preparation. Although not a formal evaluation, this is a strong recommendation of CALL. Sela practices these principles, and the pupils can bear out most, if not all, of the assertions made.

Walker, Bill (1994). EFL Teachers' Attitudes about CALL. CAELL Journal, 5 (3), 12-15.

The author has conducted a survey of teachers' attitudes in the King Fahd University for Petroleum and Minerals in Saudi Arabia. He is interested to evaluate the benefits of CALL and to whom those benefits apply; teachers or students. His survey took the form of a questionnaire for teachers about attitude.

Top of page


Bacig, T; R Evans & D Larmouth (1991). Computer-Assisted Instruction in Critical Thinking and Writing. Research in the Teaching of English, 25 (3), 365-382.

This paper compares the effects of pencil-and-paper and computer-assisted versions of a process/model approach in a college writing program with the effects of a more traditional approach. CAI materials may enhance the efficiency of student learning of some formal aspects of reasoning in writing. The research findings suggest that there may have been a gain in overall efficiency in the CAI version of the program.

Clutterbuck, Michael (1991). On convincing the sceptics, ON-CALL 5, 2.

Clutterbuck reports that he has recently seen colleagues still writing their materials by hand or typing with the Liquid Paper within easy reach. He offers to do a spot of converting by offering sceptical teachers "the thin end of the wedge". He insists that spending an hour learning to reap the benefits from a word-processor can be highly profitable for a foreign language or ESL teacher. The discovery that a computer is a very useful tool may bring about a change of heart among language staff, and once they have learned about word-processing, they may wish to investigate other ways in which the computer can help their teaching.

Coorley, Patricia (1995). Motivating a Reluctant Reader, The Center for Family, School, and Community (FSC).

In the field of special education, Coorley has found that word prediction is a powerful tool for reluctant writers. This is case study of a 13 year old boy with severe learning disabilities. She describes how she was able to employ Write Away, a word processing program with word prediction, to get him to write a coherent piece. This was after he had rejected the use of Carmen San Diego, Explore-A-Science and other programs.

Edinger, M (1994). Empowering Young Writers with Technology. Educational Leadership, 51(7),58-60.

In this case study the teacher/author describes her experience using laptops to empower students during fourth grade writing workshop periods. She describes how the workshop can enable students to narrow the gap between oral and written communication skills. Word processors make the students more independent, they focused more on what they wanted to say and did much more polishing of their work. Self concepts changed, with children who had previously avoided writing becoming enthusiastic writers.

Joram, Elana; Earl Woodruff; Mary Bryson & Peter H Lindsay (1992). The Effects of Revising with a Word Processor on Written Composition. Research in the Teaching of English, 26 (2), 167-193.

This research tests the hypothesis that more frequent revising throughout composing with word processors might interfere with the constructive processes of composition. From comparing students' work with word processors and pencil and paper, the writers conclude that assumptions should not be made about the general benefits of word processing without considering the specific writing and text-editing capabilities of the students under consideration.

Liou, Hsien-Chin; Samuel H Wang & Yuli Hung Yeh (1992). Can Grammatical Computer-Assisted Language Learning Help EFL Writing Instruction? Calico Journal, 10 (1), 24-45.

In response to a perceived lack of software for grammar or writing, the authors designed and tested a program to enhance writing instruction in the area of language use, specifically to correct recurrent grammatical weaknesses for Chinese EFL learners. Although the study did not show CALL to be superior to paper and pencil, they did not find any evidence that indicated CALL to be detrimental. Overall, they conclude that combined with classroom learning, grammatical CALL is helpful for writing performance.

Neu, Joyce & Robyn Scarcella (1991). Word Processing in the ESL Writing Classroom: A Survey of Students' Attitudes, in Patricia Dunkel (Ed) Computer Assisted Language Learning and Testing: Research Issues and Practice, 169-187. New York: Newbury House.

These researchers looked into the effectiveness of CALL for teaching writing to establish whether positive results accrue to non-native English students who use PCs in their ESL language class, and whether these students hold positive attitudes toward using computers to compose in their writing class. There was no comparison with baseline data obtained from comparable groups of students enrolled in traditional classrooms. The data was collected through the use of a questionnaire administered to the students.

Phinney, Marianne (1991). Computer-Assisted Writing and Writing Apprehension in ESL Students, in Patricia Dunkel (Ed) Computer Assisted Language Learning and Testing: Research Issues and Practice, 189-204. New York: Newbury House.

Marianne Phinney reports the results of a two-phase study of ESL students writing apprehension in English and analyses the ways in which the apprehension was affected by students using computers to compose. The study tested some of the claims made by enthusiasts of computer-assisted composition and provides an analysis of the types of blocking behaviour that may be reduced as a result of using a computer when writing.

Yau, M; S Zeigler & L Siegel (1990). Laptop Computers and the Learning Disabled Student: A study of the value of portable computers to the writing progress of students with fine motor problems. Ontario, Canada: Research Services, Toronto Board of Education.

A report of research conducted 88-89 involving seventh and eighth grade students. It involved qualitative and quantitative comparisons of hand-written and computer-written compositions. A majority of frequent users of computers made statistically significant improvement in the quantity and quality of their written work although no significant differences in features such as spelling and punctuation were observed.

Top of page


Heimans, Stephen (1996). The Internet & ESL: Resources and Roles, ON-CALL.

In this article, Heimans summarises the potential of the WWW in ESL learning and teaching. The ideas presented are the culmination of research into the potential of the WWW as a resource for the teaching and learning of ESL. He also poses a couple of questions that will need to be addressed: What are the generic forms of the linguistic interaction made possible by Email and internet 'chat' sites, and how might these be useful in terms of applicability to spoken, and other forms of written language development, or to the second language learning process in general? What also, are the nature of the hypertextual reading and writing process and how might the use of hypertext effect the acquisition of these skills?

Top of page


© Ridwan Sedgwick 1999